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Social-cultural determinants of the basic mythological types.

In the present thesis research by extremely important concepts "the mythological type" and "a mythological image" are. Thus between them strict differentiation will be marked. Further we shall understand as "mythological type" initial syncrethic structure, in personified form reflecting natural and, simultaneously, a social reality which, in particular, was present in culture of Barbarous Europe and in Indo-European peoples cultures (at least, at a stage of their unity). According to the concept submitted in the present research, mythological types formed a certain structural nucleus.

The structural nucleus here is meant as group of these mythological types incorporated among themselves by specific plot-semantic connections).

"The mythological image" further will be understood as concrete expression of mythological type in culture of separate peoples Indo-European language family. It represents display any supreme reality, past through a prism of perception of representatives of concrete culture and reflected in mythologies, rituals, the fine arts, the literature. Thus, frequently, there were situations when this or that type was shown inside any culture in several synchronously existing images (by virtue of its unequal perception representatives of various social, ethnic, demographic groups). As in most cases the plot-semantic communications existing between initial mythological types, took place and with reference to mythological images, it is possible to speak and about local displays of the mentioned structural nucleus.

The Problem of methodological character consists in search of criterion of the selection, allowing reducing all variety of mythological characters to several steady types. In the present research allocation of this types is under construction on the basis of possession them of the most significant for ancient societies functions. Such functions were legislative, military, agrarian - magic, cultural - mediator ones. As a whole, these functions in conditions of ancient societies had strongly pronounced man's character for division by trades existed, first of all, among men. The role of the woman was multifunctional and, therefore, it would be logical to allocate as independent the syncretic function connected to female works. Such approach differs from Dumezil theory where Indo-European gods are grouped in magic, military and economic-natural functions (each of which corresponded to one of three Vedic groups of the population (varns). However the reality even in Vedic epoch was much more complex. In the present research is accepted for the obvious fact that agrarian (and in earlier time and hunting) activity was inextricably related with magic representations. Hence, allocation Dumezil of magic in special function hardly is lawful. On the other hand, it is perfect irrespective of military-power there was cultural - mediator function. It will be shown below, what groups of the population really were responsible for performance of these roles and whose ideology expressed embodiments of the appropriate mythological types. The concept offered in the present research, consists in the following:

1. In all a phenomenological variety of mythological images of pantheons of Barbarous Europe (and is wider - the Indo-European pantheon) it is possible to isolate the invariant base types, making initial structural nucleus, each of which has one of five functions selected by the author. So, legislative function the God of the Clear Sky as he patronises breeding collective and the military right (in Holan's concept he is not present, and on the boiler from Gundestrup to this character corresponded to Teutat). By military - power function it is characterised the God of the Thunder being the spokesman of ideology of aristocracy among which priority interests military activity was took the major place (to the God of the Thunder could correspond air image lords of the Underworld according to Holan and Celt Taranis). The god of Earthly Forces esteemed by priests and farmers, carries out agrarian - magic function (to him there is in agreement with the god of growth and in any measure the god of the earth Holan, and also Celt Cernunnos). The cultural Hero has got cultural-mediator function as he personifies sacred imperial authority, including role of the intermediary between gods and people (the god benefactor according to Holan, Smertrius in Hatt's concept). At last, the multifunctional syncretic female type of the Great Goddess connects a dual Sky-Earthly nature (the goddess of sky Holan).

2. The circuit of mutual relation between these types can be presented as a ring, which is, formed by the man's characters, located beside with each other depending on correlation their functions. So, the God of the Thunder and the God of Sky in a number of traditions tend to merge in a uniform image as both they are connected to heavenly elements. The same tendency is observed and with reference to Earthly gods - to the God of Earth Powers and the Cultural Hero (though last can be the son of the first). Thus, the Cultural Hero as closely connected with the world of people the character, has the related features and good luck the Clear Sky (and in some traditions it is considered his son, between them also frequently arises intermediate type of twins. Only the God of the Thunder and the God of Earth Powers are antagonists (the Cultural Hero suffers from their conflict also). The unique female deity mentally placed in the centre of a ring, plays binding role among man's images. More often she of the spouse of the God of Thunder and the God of Earth Powers, in a number of traditions the goddess consists in marriage relations good luck the Clear Sky. And more and more late female characters of mythologies of Barbarous Europe (and the Indo-European mythologies as a whole) are derivatives from an image of the Great Goddess.

Names of days of week at Indo-European mythologies peoples confirm the importance of these types of gods:

























































Certainly, influence of astrology (as names of gods connected with heavenly bodies) and the Bible (the name "Saturday" this to the sixth day of week here has had an effect. Nevertheless, presence of names main Indo-European mythologies characters, that are in agreement with the basic types of gods allocated in this work is indicative. The vivid example the German languages show. Tuesday - day of Tiw (the God of Sky). Wednesday is day of Woden/Odin (the Cultural Hero). Thursday is day of Donner/Thor (the God of Thunder). It is interesting that in Russia where thunder god (Perun) was replaced by prophet Ilya, "Ilya's day" had also on Thursday). Friday - day of Freyja (the Great Goddess). In Russia functions of the Great Goddess partly went on Parasceva-Friday). Probably, day of the God of Earth Powers was Saturday.

In Romance languages we observably a similar picture. But the Roman mythology represented a little more eclectic formation. Tuesday is connected to Mars who though had military function, as the God of the Clear Sky, in genesis was the God of Earthly Forces. With Wednesday and Friday all is simple: Mercury and Venus belonged, accordingly, to types of the Cultural Hero and the Great Goddess. Thursday is this to the Jove (Jovis Pater, originally Diovis - "brilliant"). His name speaks about an accessory to type of the God of the Clear Sky. However Mediterranean peoples (the Greeks, the Italics and the Etruscans) had steady tendency to allocate this type and thunderous function.

Sunday - day of the sun and Monday - day of the moon exist apparently. Is allowable to assume that they, under the names, are additional days as the Cultural Hero and the God of Earthly Forces find out in many traditions strongly pronounced sun-moon symbolics. It agrees Zoroastrian sources, "... Guyomard shined as the sun, and the protogenic Bull was white and shining, as the Moon..." (Rak, 1998, 467). Sun features are traced in many Cultural Hero embodiment (though they usually direct and are not identified with the sun): Indian Vivasvat, a primogenitor mortal on the ground (father of Yama and Manu), later becoming the solar god; Iranian Vivahvant (Yama's father); Greek Apollo; Slavic Dazhbog; Celt Lugh, Belenus etc. In this connection pertinently to recollect solar deer of A. Holan. At the same time embodiments of the God of Earthly Forces contain lunar symbolics. The moon was treated as two horns of the bull, it was considered as a source of fertility (there is a legend that the grass grows at the moon). On Near East during a lunar eclipse spoke "the lion torments the bull". In Vedas the Indian god of the moon Soma frequently is characterised by an epithet "bull", he sometimes refers to "as the judge of dead" (some encroachment on Yama's prerogatives). A catfish is the god of the same ritual intoxicating drink that is in agreement with Dionysus.

Fantalov Alex


Speciality 24.00.01 - the theory and a history of culture

The dissertation on competition of a doctor degree of cultural science

Indo-European gods in social-historical aspect