Theories of Mythology.
Holan approves that in epoch of a Neolithic Age there was a religion, in the basic positions uniform for an extensive area cultures of Forward Asia and Southeast Europe and rendering influence on the next less advanced regions. The basic deities of this religion: the goddess of the sky and the god of the ground, and also their children (the god of growth, the god - benefactor, brothers - twins and their sister the goddess of the sun). (Holan, 1992. - p. 12).
The Idea that a role of the Great goddess (so she is named still by antique authors), it is impossible to limit to sphere of the ground, is represented true (shall recollect even cloudy wives and maidens of late folklore). She was considered as Mistress a rain and moisture, the mistress of animals, Mistress lives and death. A symbol of her was a circle (turned into a ring). The goddess was personified by such animals, as a bird (for example, a cuckoo - see. Holan, 1992, 173), also insects - the butterfly, a bee (all - air elements!) etc. Her spouse the master of a bottom (the god of the ground or the Underworld) in two images were usual (the snake or an animal); and heavenly (an eagle, the hawk, a kite) - when he rose to the spouse. Holan considers, that attitudes between this spouses were completely not idyllic, and during one of quarrels the goddess of the sky has dumped on the ground of the spouse from what that has gone lame (Holan, 1992, 191).
Holan do not precise differentiation between selected with him "the god of the earth" and the master Underworld. Sometimes he speaks about them as about a uniform deity, symbolised both the bull, and predators like a leopard, a lion, and a wolf. But a stumbling-block for similar mixture there is popular in art of the Ancient East a plot torment the bull a lion. " Very much can be, that in the Bottom Mesopotamia (taking place, by the way, in the neighbourhood with Elam) the bull and a lion - images Neolithic Age the god of the ground and Underworld - were represented to epoch of a Neolithic Age two different deities. Can be, they were considered consisting in relationship and both used respect. <...> Though the bull was esteemed as divine embodiment the Earth, on mythological representations he could be killed by other representative of "bottom". But the death of the bull was time: in 40 days his constellation again appeared above horizon, and people exulted concerning revival of the god " (Holan, 1992, 55). " At last, it is possible, that Mesopotamian the bull killed by a lion, it not the god of the ground, and the god of vegetation <...> Here Could affect and that circumstance, that images of deities of the ground and vegetation in general precisely are not differentiated, quite often mixing up in myths (and, by the way, in graphic symbolics) " (Holan, 1992, 67). The god of vegetation, according to Holan, was represented in an image of the ram, whose horns remind sprouts to a seed. From here nearby and till an image of a deer - symbolizing god of the benefactor.
The god - benefactor was thought then in an image of the deer connected to elements of the ground. " There Are ancient figures on which deer horns are treated as vegetative forms (fig. 63 : 6). Such association could arise and because of similarity deer horns with branches and consequently, that the deer dumps horns an autumn, and new at it grow is similar to annual revival of vegetation " (Holan, 1992, 40) in the spring. " So, we come to a conclusion about the maintenance of the most ancient cosmogonies myth explaining rising and a sunset: the deer (an essence belonging to the ground) has stolen the sun - maiden in the underground world and ran with her on the sky. Angry the lord of the Underworld has pursued a deer, has struck him and has returned the captive back " (Holan, 1992, 42). " The wonderful deer, which has stolen the sun - maiden for, has turned to the hero this to people the sun, light, fire. And then he became in general the benefactor of people who have attached them and to other values: agriculture, craft, knowledge." (Holan, 1992, 44). From a deer bearing from under the ground the sun, nearby and up to a boat transporting souls died and up to a horse, carrying out the same function. Holan writes, that later the horse has replaced a deer in his role mediator (with. 49 - 50).
Holan believes, that "Neolithic religion" as the system existed up to 3 - the beginnings 2 thousand before Indo-Europeans intrusion and some other peoples, "... Therefore in Europe and Forward Asia the culture of the most ancient farmers was destroyed, the Stone Age was replaced bronze, new peoples were formed and distributed Indo-European languages, beliefs were changed, and the former cult symbols was adapted to other religious views." (Holan, 1992, 10).
Sights Holan are original, but attempt of decoding will unexpectedly be coordinated to them Celt images on the well-known boiler from Gundestrup which was undertaken by the French scientist Jean Jacque Hatt. It will be in detail considered in the chapter devoted Celt to mythology. In brief, Hatt speaks about the following basic characters Celt mythology: the god of thunderTaranis ; the god connected to Earthly elements Cernunnos ; to the goddess - their spouse; divine hero Smertrius; the god of sky Teutat . Таранис, being jealous the goddess, насылает on it(her) of monstrous volko-dogs. That, wishing to disappear, turns to a bird. Smertrius (Cernunnos's supporter) kills a dog. Then, the coalition of gods (where enters and Teutat) sends army on protection of the goddess. Taranis, in turn, sends dogs to grasp certain sacred bull, but Smertrius again leaves the winner and the goddess returns the natural shape.
Semantic crossings of conclusions Hatt and Holan are interesting. The thunder god Taranis can correspond air image of lords of the Underworld. Pair: Cernunnos and Smertrius vividly remind the god of growth or the god of the ground (in the event that to understand the last separately from the lord of the Underworld) and the god - benefactor. Both Cernunnos, and Smertrius suffered from anger Taranis. Are important here and animal symbols: a deer and bull (Cernunnos), predatory animal Taranis (variant "torment"), birds of the goddess. Analysis by Hatt reveals not only Earthly, but also heavenly began goddesses - mothers (that corresponds to Holan's concept).
It is necessary to tell that Hatt and Holan concepts as though supplement each other. The first has offered the concrete analysis of monuments of the fine arts Celt to mythology. The second - On the most extensive material of cultures of the world he has tried to reveal the second structure of global mythology, which sources saw in "Neolithic religions". At all interest and importance of conclusions Holan, they frequently seem too courageous - the disorder of cultures to which monuments considered by the scientist belong is too great. Besides at acquaintance to work Holan does not leave a thought that exarticulation by the scientist of initial deities is carried out faster by a sensual - shaped principle.
CULTURE of BARBAROUS EUROPE: TYPOLOGY of MYTHOLOGICAL IMAGES
Speciality 24.00.01 - the theory and a history of culture
The dissertation on competition of a doctor degree of cultural science
Social-cultural determinants of the basic mythological types.
ATLAS OF MYTHS.